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January 23rd, 2019
Risky Business Just Got Riskier - DOJ Changes Stance on Internet Gambling
Last week the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) made waves in the online gambling industry with an Opinion interpreting the Wire Act (18 U.S.C. § 1084). In the Opinion, DOJ's Office of Legal Counsel concluded that most sections of the Wire Act are not limited to sports-related wagers and instead prohibit the use of interstate wires for any bets or wagers. This Opinion represents a significant change from DOJ's prior position on the issue and also puts online gambling providers and advertisers in legal limbo.
Generally, the Wire Act prohibits the use of wire communications (e.g. telephone, fax, internet) for the purpose of conducting gambling-related business. This includes placing and receiving bets as well as transmitting the proceeds of any bet or wager. Since 2011 DOJ has held that the Wire Act's prohibitions only apply to sports-related gambling. In the new Opinion, however, DOJ reversed course and now holds that only one clause of the Wire Act is limited to sports betting and the remainder of the law applies to all forms of gambling.
This development is significant for a few reasons. First, it has the potential to place anyone engaged in online gambling in legal jeopardy even if the gambling occurs in a state where gambling is otherwise legal. Second, DOJ’s new position threatens the validity of interstate gambling compacts that allow players in multiple states to compete in the same game. For instance, DOJ's current interpretation of the Wire Act would prohibit the compact between Nevada, New Jersey and Delaware which allows individuals in those states to compete against one another in online poker games offered at qualifying locations. Third, in light of DOJ's new position, advertisers and advertising agencies need to analyze whether their games or products will be considered illegal under federal law.
While the Opinion reflects the current position of DOJ and the stance it will take in enforcing the Wire Act, we note that the Opinion is not binding law. It is ultimately up to the courts to decide whether DOJ's interpretation of the Wire Act is correct. Indeed, DOJ expects that its new position will be challenged. DOJ also gave companies 90 days to comply with the new policy before it begins enforcement.
Only time will tell where the chips will fall on this issue. In the meantime, stay tuned for updates on any legal challenges or other developments that are in the works.
If you have questions about how the Wire Act affects video games, or about any other interactive entertainment matters, contact Sean F. Kane at (212) 705 4845 or firstname.lastname@example.org, S. Gregory Boyd at (212) 826 5581 or email@example.com, Tyler Maulsby at (212) 705-4893 or firstname.lastname@example.org or any other member of the Frankfurt Kurnit Interactive Entertainment group.
Other Technology Law Alerts
Video Games With Advanced Communications Services Must Now Be Accessible to Players With Disabilities
An important legal waiver recently expired and as a result, video game developers and publishers must now ensure that new and substantially upgraded games comply with the accessibility requirements of the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (“CVAA”). Read more.
January 7 2019
Shields On: 9th Circuit Strengthens Legal Defense for Video Game Developers
There's good news for game developers who incorporate real-world elements in their games. On October 20, 2017, the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed a trial court decision which found that Gran Turismo, a Sony video game, was an expressive work entitled to First Amendment protection Read more.
November 2 2017
FTC Settles First-Ever Action Against Individual “Influencers”
September 18 2017